Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Amazing Chinese Characters (254) Yang - 阳

The shell bone script for character Yang is

The left is the cliff, we mentioned in Post 252.


The top right is character Sun (see Post 4).


The bottom part is the sunshine by 《象形字典》(Dictionary of Pictography).


The bronze script for the character is


The right bottom has three slashes on the left of the curve, which is the sunshine or sunlight.

The small seal script for the character is
similar to the bronze script.

The clerical script for the character is
the left part is changed to "Ear radical" with the meaning of cliff as I mentioned in Post 253, the right part is similar to that of old scripts.

The traditional song typeface of the character is

similar to clerical script.

The simplified song typeface of the character is

The sunshine on the right bottom disappeared, which is OK because the Sun is still there.

Its Pinyin is Yang2.

Basically, 日 is sun, 阳 is the sunshine on the cliff in original meaning. 阳 means sun too in most of time too. The difference between the two is very subtle nowadays. 

阳 is not only Sunny, but is part of famous Chinese philosophy 阴阳 (Yin-Yang). I discussed 阴(Yin) in Post 253. 

阴阳(Yin-Yang) is so important and so rich in content that I will discuss it in an independent post under my another blog "Chinese Calligraphy History" (https://leweishang.blogspot.com/2016/02/why-chinese-say-buy-east-west-instead.html)


(Other related blogs
Creative Chinese Calligraphy - https://creativechinesecalligraphy.blogspot.com/2016/05/the-beautiy-of-creative-calligraphy-1.html)
Chinese Calligraphy History - https://leweishang.blogspot.com/2016/02/picto-calligraphy-new-way-to-write.html)

Amazing Chinese Characters (253) Yin - 阴

The shell bone script for character Yin is not found, so we start the bronze script for the character,


Left is a cliff, ancient Chinese lived in caves in the bottom of cliff.


From their view, they see cliff all the time.

The right top is mouth (the triangle), the low part is cloud.Why is there a mouth on top? No explanation is found. I think that the ancient Chinese believed that there is a King in the sky who is in charge of weather.  When he spits clouds from his mouth, it is a cloudy day.


The big seal script for the character is

very similar to its bronze script.

The small seal script for character Yin,


which is similar to the old scripts but a little bit more complex.

The clerical script for the character is

The left has changed big, but still has some similarity to the old script. The left part is called Ear Radical because it is like an ear. This one is called Left Ear Radical because it is on the left of the character. As we discussed above, it has nothing to do with ear. It is cliff, which most people including Chinese don't know that.

The traditional song typeface of the character Yin is

which is very similar to the clerical script.

The simplified song typeface of the character is

which is changed a lot, the right part is 月(Moon), totally different from that on old scripts.

Is this change rational? Some degree. The original scripts emphasize the Shade in the day time, the sun is blocked by clouds. The simplified song typeface uses Moon to replace the right part, which means "night with moon", different from shade in day time. But it has no sun too. Some degree rational.



Its Pinyin is Yin1.

Some of you may have heard Yin-Yang, a famous Chinese philosophy. Yin-Yang in Chinese is 阴阳, the first character is 阴. I will discuss Yang - 阳 in next post. We will see what they Yin-Yang really mean in the view of original pictography.

(Other related blogs
Creative Chinese Calligraphy - https://creativechinesecalligraphy.blogspot.com/2016/05/the-beautiy-of-creative-calligraphy-1.html)
Chinese Calligraphy History - https://leweishang.blogspot.com/2016/02/picto-calligraphy-new-way-to-write.html)

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Amazing Chinese Characters (252) Meat - 肉

The shell bone script of character Meat is

which is a Knife


and a vertical line in Knife, something is cut by knife, which is Meat.


The big seal script of Meat is

two lines in knife, more meat.

The small seal script of the character is


similar to its big seal script.

But it is almost same as the small seal script of Moon


It is difficult to distinguish the small seal script Meat from that of Moon.

Next the clerical script for the character is
the knife is a door-like shape, different from clerical script of Knife, or a little bit similarity.

inside there are two 人(Human), top part is extending out. Here 人 should mean something related to body or meat.

which is similar to character Inside (Post 249),


which is only one 人 inside.

Let's see the clerical script of Moon,

significant different from Meat.

The Pinyin for character Meat - 肉 is Rou4.

I have to point out that the similarity of the two characters has great influence on related characters. Most radical 月s do not mean Moon, but Meat or body or organ or meat related. For example

 肝 - liver;  肥 - fat; 肺 - lung; 肌 - muscle, etc.

We call the radical 月 to be Meat-Moon radical (肉月旁), because it means Meat but it is written as Moon.

Fortunately, the confusions have not caused much problem. People have got used to. The reason may be because people just memorized the characters, don't know and care the original meaning of any character. Is it good or bad?

Friday, November 8, 2019

Amazing Chinese Characters (251) Again - 再

The shell bone script for character Again is


which are a fish traps made from bamboo which are still used nowadays.


Inside of the trap is similar to a fish hook


Fish could get in easily but difficult to get out. It is used most in rice field to catch loach whose body is very slippery, hard to hold. Also in the rice field, the water is very shallow (1 or 2 inches), it is impossible to use fish hook. The fish trap is the best tool to catch the loach.


Why is the bamboo fish trap meaning Again? Because it could be used again and again.

Well there are many other tools which could be used again and again, why is trap for Again? I think the reason should be trap was more difficult to make than other tools, and could be used for longer time.

The big seal script for the character is
It looks like fish trap.

The small seal script for the character is

Similar to its big seal script.

The clerical script for the character is
Similar to the old scripts.

Its Pinyin is Zai4.

In my hometown, Zhejiang, Hunan, China, people still use this fish traps to catch the loach. The name of the trap is called "Zhuan3 Zai3",  Zhuan may be Zuan (钻) because people there don't distinguish Zhuan and Zuan, 钻 means Drill or squeeze in. Zai3 is close to Zai4. So "Zhuan3 Zai3" could be 钻再“ - Drill in trap, which is the best describing of the bamboo devices .

再 means Again, so Chinese see "Good bye" is 再见 - pronounced "Zai4 Jian4", meaning See You Again, or Meet You Again. In which 见 means "Meet" (see Post 201).

or
or

再见 is the most used word in Chinese, another one is 你好。If you learn Chinese, you will be taught 再见 right after you learnt 你好。

In Post 102, I talked another character Again - 又, what is the difference between the two.

又 means that something happened again already:“又见面了” - We met again (We had met, we met again). 再 means that something would happen again in the future:"再见“ - See you again sometime in the future (possibly).

Both mean Again but not exchangeable.

(Other related blogs
Creative Chinese Calligraphy - https://creativechinesecalligraphy.blogspot.com/2016/05/the-beautiy-of-creative-calligraphy-1.html)
Chinese Calligraphy History - https://leweishang.blogspot.com/2016/02/picto-calligraphy-new-way-to-write.html)

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Amazing Chinese Characters (250) You - 尔,你

The shell bone script for character You is


which is an arrow, or multiple arrows.

Is it a character of Arrow? No, because there is a character of Arrow in shell bone script (Post 38). So it must be something else.

There is no explanation why the character of You is like arrow. What I think is that the character original presents the enemy, not our people. It gradually became to present other people, then You who is a person not in your side.

Another explanation I think is that the ancient Chinese shoot arrows with message to enemy positions  to communicate each other. In order to make sure the enemy could receive the message, they shoot multiple arrows at the same time.

The big seal script for You is


which is still like an arrow.

The small seal script for you is


It changes a lot, not like arrow very much. It may be just to make it looks better.

The clerical script for You is


which is similar to its small seal script.

The simplified song typeface is

which is little similar to all older scripts.

Its Pinyin is Er3.

爾 or 尔 have been used in Classical writing Chinese (文言文), not the modern writing Chinese, or Vernacular Chinese (白话文)which is from oral Chinese.

Since Sui Dynasty (581 - 619), the Vernacular Chinese added a Person radical to the side of 尔 to get 
which is current character of You.

Its Pinyin is Ni3.

Even though not many people know 尔,but 尔 is still used as You in classical writing Chinese, and it is the original character of 你。

If you are a foreigner who take a Chinese class, most likely, your teacher will teach you 你好!as your first Chinese word.


好 - Good (see Post 27), 你好! means You (are) Good! which is most popular greeting word.

你好! is similar to Hello, or How are you? but not the same to either one.

When you say 你好!to a person who just needs to respond 你好!back, which is similar to Hello. But 你好 has a wish: I wish you would be good. "How are you?" is more formal, people needs to respond "Fine, thanks. and you?". Also "How are you?" has no wish, just a neutral question.

(Other related blogs
Creative Chinese Calligraphy - https://creativechinesecalligraphy.blogspot.com/2016/05/the-beautiy-of-creative-calligraphy-1.html)
Chinese Calligraphy History - https://leweishang.blogspot.com/2016/02/picto-calligraphy-new-way-to-write.html)

Friday, November 1, 2019

Amazing Chinese Characters (249) Inside - 内

The shell bone script for character Inside is



the door alike outside is cave people live, the inside 人 is person. A person in the cave means Inside.



The big seal script for Inside is
very similar to its shell bone script.

The small seal script for the script is

similar but the person is out of the top of cave! What kind of cave, and what kind of person?
I don't know the reason why the person gets out. It is a little bit strange, but it was accepted by people.

The clerical script for the character is
similar to its small seal script.

The song typeface for the character is

Its pinyin is Nei4.

(Other related blogs
Creative Chinese Calligraphy - https://creativechinesecalligraphy.blogspot.com/2016/05/the-beautiy-of-creative-calligraphy-1.html)
Chinese Calligraphy History - https://leweishang.blogspot.com/2016/02/picto-calligraphy-new-way-to-write.html)